Book Review: Common Sense Economics

There is no such thing as free lunch 3. Decisions are made at the margin 4. Trade promotes economic progress 5. Transaction costs are an obstacle 6. Prices bring the choices of buyers and sellers into balance 7. Profits direct businesses towards activities that increase wealth 8. People earn income by helping others Aha 9. Production of goods and services people value not Just Jobs, provide the source of high living standards 10. Economic progress comes primarily through trade, investment, better ways of doing things, and sound economic institutions. 1. The invisible hand” of market prices directs buyers and seller toward activities that promotes the general welfare. 12. Too often the long term consequences, or the secondary effects, of an action are ignored. The authors felt that these key concepts were important for the readers to understand the inner workings of the economic success. These key concepts are needed from readers to understand the true meaning of values, cost, prices, and standard of living.

In the authors’ minds, they felt these key concepts were needed to help explain important concepts that they would explain later on in the reading. The first concept, Incentives Matter, is the first concept that that the authors talked about in the book. They put great emphasis on this particular concept. They explained that this very concept was the basis for economics. They explained that: “Changes in incentives influence human behavior in predictable ways”. The main point of this concept is that the more attractive an option is the more likely an individual to choose it.

Another point that they also focused on was the fact that if a particular product more costly, the more unappealing it will become to the consumer. They used examples such as employees will worker harder if they feel that they will be greatly rewarded or a student will study material that they feel will be on an Aha exam. This concept also can be correlated with political process as well. It is explained that citizens will vote for candidates will benefit them in their own personal lives. The second important concept was “There is no such thing as a free lunch”.

This concept is built based upon human desire for good being unlimited and the limited resources to match that could not possible match those resources. This is relates to he theme of opportunity costs. This means that the choice of one thing, but you must sacrifice the opportunity to do another thing. There are opportunity costs with producers with the cost of outputting quality goods and adhering to regulations put on by the government. The next concept is “Decisions are made at the margin” this meant that individuals wanted to get the most out their resources.

You want to have most benefits out your actions. One thing that the authors put emphasis on is the fact that all decisions include what they called “addition and subtractions”. They just always put into thought if the prospects of additional benefits outweigh the potential cost that may be involved when it comes to the decision made. This similar to a business owner who expanding their business, they have to factor in the cost of expanding and the potential profit. The fourth concept is “Trade promotes economic progress. The authors of the explain that trade is based on the principle of the personal gain on both sides. This means through trade both sides benefit from trade. They explain that through trade it takes product or service that may not be valuable n that area and bring to a place that it is valuable. This allows both sides to benefit, one side is getting a good or service that they don’t have and another side get to make profit on something that may not be to value in that area. Aha 4 The next concept goes in hand with the last concept, “Transaction Cost is an obstacle to trade”.

It is explained as the cost of trade. This can be seen as the resources used to help bring about trade. If the cost of trade is high, it can a lot of time hinder the benefits of the trade. An example of this transaction cost is the cost of the middleman. With this concept the authors explain how involving a middleman is necessary in trade, but can add an expanse of trade. This expense is often added on to the price of the product being traded. This can also hinder or detour an individuals from buying this item. The sixth concept in the book touches on the subject of prices.

It is called “Prices bring the choices of buyers and sellers in to balances. The basic idea of this concept is that prices will be the driving force of how buyers and sellers will make their choices. This brings in the laws of supply and demand. In the summary, these laws describe how the price will always bring the errs and seller on balanced accord. This means if the prices set by the seller is too high, the buyer will either not buy that product or buy less units, and this will force the seller to lower the price but to the equilibrium price.

If the price is too low then the buyer will buy more units of the product. This means there is an increase in demand; this will force the seller to raise the prices back to the equilibrium price. The next concept is pretty self-explanatory. Profits direct business towards activities that increase wealth. This is basically saying that business owners will partake in any different ventures, but they will cut the ones that do not produce economic wealth. This is needs to be done or it will hinder economic progress.

Aha The next concept challenges what most people would think of contrary to what most people think. The concept that the authors is talking about is “People earn income by helping others”. Those who have obtained financial wealth achieved this because they have skills that people in general have found to be important. They continue to explain that if a individual is unwilling to help other people, it is very likely that you will not receive a high income.

Tradition v.s Common Sense

Whether it is a celebratory tradition or a tradition that has been followed since ancient times, unmans will not question the motives behind it; they will Just continue to follow it. In the short story “The Lottery’ by Shirley Jackson, villagers blindly follow their annual tradition, one that claims a life every year. All the villagers take part in this event knowing that there will be death yet no one dares to stop and question it.

Even when some people do stop and question the reasons that began the tradition, they will not do anything about it because it is a tradition that has been followed countless and they do not want to be the only ones to question it or even worse, not follow it. This shows that human beings will tolerate acts of evil and injustices in traditions, making them unable to step out of that circle and see what is really going on because of their preference of tradition over common sense. It does not matter if the tradition consists of bloodshed or even death; humans will continue to blindly follow tradition.

Traditions have been around for thousands of years, even before civilized human life began. They have been performed all over the world, in all points of time. In the overview by Joyce Moss and George Wilson, it is explained that ancient cultures lived sacrifices were necessary to benefit the community. In fact, during ancient times a tradition similar to “The Lottery’ was such “a highly regarded mean of decision-making that eventually most civic matters were resolved by. ” Joyce Moss & George Wilson) This is because traditions were among the main parts or sections of ancient human life.

Even now, traditions are still a big part of human life. Many traditions around the world are a huge thing for humans. They will make special foods, decorations, and even rituals. However, many of these traditions are performed without thought. Many traditions are followed because it has been done before, no one has questioned it before, and so there is no reason to stop it now. In “The Lottery’ one can analyze that the original meaning and aspects of the tradition have indeed been lost and that the tradition is followed Just because.

The analysis made on study mode suggests that “Substituting slips of paper for chips of wood, a recital prior to the lottery, and a salute to address each person” are some of the aspects that have changed prior to the original lottery, the first one that began everything. Analysis of the Tradition in Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery’) It also mentions that the actual tradition has remained a routine. This leads to the conclusion that the lottery is no longer continued because of the tradition, but because it has been done for so long it Just feels right to continue to follow it.

In many societies, rituals are part of the traditions. Many believe these rituals are performed because of religion or a similar idea. What people do not know is that not all rituals are needed or performed because of religion. Many rituals are Just performed because of tradition. It does not matter if the ritual is harmful and has a negative impact on society; many societies will still perform them Just to keep the tradition going. The short story, “The Lottery’ by Shirley Jackson, shows a perfect example of this.

The people of the town still perform the ritual because of the tradition held every year. They do not care if someone they love or care for dies; they just want to follow the tradition. Even the own family members participate in the ritual, which is stoning one of their own family members to death. These types of rituals are incredible acts of evil but humans still participate in them. In the last section of the overview by Jennifer Hicks, she explains very thoroughly the tradition of stoning. In it she explains that it was a standing ritual.

She does mention that the “original paraphernalia for the lottery has been lost long ago. ” (Hicks) There is a part in the story where old man Warner stated, “Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon. ” This refers to human sacrifices benefiting the community with food, which is something that by the time the story takes place, which is around the 1700 to sass, should be known that it is not real. So why do they continue to do this? It is the simple reasons of following a tradition. There are many concerns on why human beings follow traditions that are inhumane instead of using their common sense.

Most of the issues are due to the fact that many rituals followed by humans consist of bloodshed or even death. In many societies, traditions play a big role, causing more and more people to be a part of them. The main dilemma is why people accept traditions that involve bloodshed or death, and continue to be part of them. It should be common sense that traditions that involve bloodshed and death can be no good to societies, specially societies filled with children. Traditions like these will only poison the minds of the young with the idea that a tradition must be followed no matter what.

The reason people do not stop them is because they do not want to stand out. In the book “Shirley Jackson” by Friedman Lineman, it explains that Shirley Jackson was new to a small town when she moved. She did not really know anybody so she did not participate in the town’s traditions. This caused other towns people to look at her weird, like an outsider. This can reflect on her short story of “The Lottery’, in which he analysis can be made that Mrs.. Hutchinson was an outsider, not so much of being new but the type that does not do what everyone else does, in this case, the tradition of the lottery.

It is clear that these traditions have taken over the common sense of the people. Now, people do not think before acting. They Just follow traditions to the letter. They do no stop to think about their traditions and if they are beneficial or plain out dangerous. They Just do not want to stand out; they want to be the same as everyone else. It is around these thoughts that the main concern revolves around. Humans will argue that traditions are needed when the reality is that they are not. They have gotten surrounded so much by traditions; it is like a second language to them.

The short story “The Lottery’ by Shirley Jackson explains how human beings in the village have been blinded by a tradition, which is the lottery. With careful analysis, it is easy to spot all blind actions carried out by the villagers. Everybody seems nice and Joyful throughout the story until the very end. “It seems as though Jackson is making a statement regarding hypocrisy and human evil. ” (Analysis of the Tradition in Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery’) What Shirley Jackson wants us to realize by writing this story is that people are so blinded by traditions; they might kill someone thinking it is alright.

Shirley Jackson uses ideas similar to these to suggest that there is an underlying evil and weakness in human beings. The village, having performed such an act for so many years, continues on with it, with no complaints or questions being asked, and the main purpose being to carry on the tradition. In the story, it states, “There’s always been a lottery says Old Man Warner. “Nothing but ruble in that,” he says of quitting the event. (122) However, almost all the villagers show some type of anxiety or fear toward the tradition.

Comments like “Don’t be nervous Jack” (122) and “Get up there Bill” (123) indicate that the people may not be entirely comfortable with the lottery. Yet everyone still goes along with it. Nobody openly expresses or shows their fear toward the lottery. Shirley Jackson may be trying to show the reader that many individuals are not strong enough to go against or stand up to their disapproval for the fear of being rejected by their own society. Instead, the villagers will continue to risk not only their lives, but the lives of their family members as well.

She makes suggestions that human beings are not always who they seem and can turn their back on you at any time for the sake of their beliefs, or in this case, tradition. Throughout history, humans have made the choice to choose their traditions over their common sense. They do not think of the effects that will be caused because of their actions. Nowadays, people in societies continue to follow traditions or “trends” rather than stopping and thinking about common sense. Humans will stand on the side to watch an argument, accident or incident, rather than stepping in and doing something about it.

They do not step in because they do not want to stand out in front of everybody else; they do not want the spotlight on them. They are frightened that they will be rejected later on. It is the same thing with traditions. Human beings do not care if there is death in the tradition, they will continue to follow it as long as they do not stand out and are not rejected or looked down on. This shows that human beings will tolerate acts of evil and injustices in traditions, making them enable to step out of that circle and see what is really going on because of their preference of tradition over common sense.

Thomas Paines Common Sense

The simple language that Paine used called out to the American public and was the first written work to openly request independence from Great Britain. In his eyes, a monarchy was not the voice of the people nor was it a step towards “real independence”-?in less than a years’ time, many would have the same perception. Paine infused the idea religion into his piece, “.. Exalting one man so greatly above the rest cannot be Justified on the equal rights of nature, so neither can it be defended on the authority of scripture; for the will of the Almighty as declared by

Gideon, and the prophet Samuel, expressly disapproves of government by Kings. ” At this point in time, the great majority of the inhabitants of America were of protestant denominations and of Catholicism beliefs. Strong morality is the basis of a solid religious relationship, and he demoralizes the king, who Paine compares to the leader of a “restless gang” whose violence eventually led him to be dreaded by those around him. Thomas Paine insulted the kingdom when stating that “one honest man to society and in the sight of God” is worth more “than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived. Paine argued that “For all men being originally equals, no one by birth could have a right to set up his own family in perpetual preference to all others forever” and he striver for a citizen elected government. “Even the distance at which the Almighty hath placed England and America is a strong and natural proof that the authority of the one over the other, was never the design of Heaven. “Other than what was taught, what really made it tolerable for one man to be in charge if all were made by one creator?

No man should be distinguished as a rare and superior return due to the home they were born into. Nature itself is the manner in which things are supposed to be and how they are supposed to function. Using the word “nature” over fifteen times alone, Paine believes that becoming an independent nation from Europe is only what is correct. “Its not the affair of a City, a County, a Province, or a Kingdom; but of a Continent -? of at least one-eighth part of the habitable Globe. ” Paine saw the transition to become independent from Europe as something that could no longer be avoided.

The monarchy was becoming wealthier and the rest of the nation was becoming ore and more rundown. Reconciliation was inevitable and nothing but a deceptive dream. Every endeavored method for peace was unsuccessful and their “prayers have been rejected with disdain”, Paine assured the nation that a more serious action had to be taken. Inflicting more gasoline to the flame, Thomas Paine rhetorically asked if one can ” hereafter love, honor, and faithfully serve the power that hath carried fire and sword into your land? , the answer was evident. Nature was all against the link between the King and indications were all over “… The strongest trial proofs of the folly of hereditary right in kings, is, that nature disapproves it, otherwise, she would not so frequently turn it into ridicule by giving mankind an ass for a lion”-?the lion, a strong, powerful but lazy animal used as a comparison to the King and the hard working animals who feared such beasts, being the kingdom.

The New World would now be an asylum from the king to all those who were opposed to his rule. Freedom was obtainable and a new beginning was right around the corner. Paine had an inspirational vision of an independent America as an asylum for redeem and a case of popular self-government in a world burdened by dictatorship and hereditary rule. “… In America the law is king, for as in absolute governments the King is law, so in free countries the law ought to be King; and there ought to be no other. Paine proposed that monarchies ended in England, a president should be put in place, obviously voted by the people and one who served the people. Although government was a necessary evil, it had its limits. After so much time of seeing something extremely wrong as being right, Thomas Paine was pushing for change. Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, ‘ITS TIME TO PART”– Paine believed there was no other option than to part from England.

Paine believed in take the bull by the horns and making America its own nation was “infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner” Establishing a separate nation was a now or never kind of thing, one that could not be left to time or chance. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense as a simple way to show the Colonists there as no other way to defend their rights, but to assert their independence. Paine alleged that the cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.

Paine did not leave opportunity for any questions, purely using plain words to make a point. Little did he know that a mere six months later on July 4th 1776, the Declaration of Independence would be signed guaranteeing the very rights he demanded. All Paine intended on achieving was an enlightenment on the corrupt nation that surrounded them and to simply enlarge the view of the people; he achieved much more, with Just a little common sense.

Common sense by thomas paine

Thomas Paine is able to use Common Sense to gain support for the independence of American colonies through his attack on the incept of a monarchy, his ability to address and eliminate the colonists’ counter arguments, and his reasoning on why the colonies need to break away as soon as possible. Thomas Paine begins Common Sense with an attack on the monarchy system and the British monarchy in specific.

Paine addresses the concept that governments exist to moderate a population, and, therefore governments should reflect the beliefs of the citizens in that population. In the case off Monarchy, kings have the absolute power to make executive decisions, without input or reflection from he same population to which those decisions apply. As a result, kings are able to make decisions that are unjust in the eyes of the population without personal consequence.

Paine puts this in perspective by referencing the kings found in scripture: “Monarchy is ranked in scripture as one of the sins of the Jews, for which a curse in reserve is denounced against them. The history of that transaction is worth attending to. ” (Paine section 2) Paine uses this biblical reference to establish a parallel between God’s absolute power and the British King’s absolute power that is irrupt. Paine goes on to condemn the British monarchy specifically as their kings are selected hereditary.

Paine remarks a hereditary line has proven to produce kings that are unjust and corrupt as they are simply given that throne with no accountability from the people. Paine attacks a monarchy on multiple levels to provide the American people with concrete evidence that monarchy is not a Just government to live under. Paine furthers his persuasion for an Independent America by addressing the prominent counter arguments in a practical and logical manner. Paine begins by addressing the argument that the American colonies have thrived under British control.

He immediately puts forth a parallel situation: “We may as well assert, that because a child has thrived upon milk, that it is never to have meat; or that the first twenty years of our lives is to become a precedent for the next twenty. ” (Section 3) Paine thoroughly establishes the parallel that while the British may have started and nourished the colonies, the colonies can only reach their greatest potential by becoming an independent nation. Paine is able to continue this parallel to address the counter argument that the British have protected America.

Again, Paine shoots this argument down as recognizes that the British have protected the colonies for their own economic gain, and in doing so the British are actually limiting the colonies. For example, if the colonies were to break away they would be able to trade with all nations. Finally, amongst other arguments, Paine addresses the argument that many of the colonists are connected through their heritage to Britain. Once again, Paine reminds colonists that many citizens escaped European oppression and are actually connected by the freedom found in the colonies.

Paine is able to address and resolve many prominent arguments against independence through his “common sense” approach. Pain’s last major point addresses the need to fight for independence immediately. Paine points out to the colonists that “until an independence is declared, the continent will feel itself like a man who continues putting off some unpleasant business from day to day, yet knows it must be done, dates to set about it, wishes it over, and is continually haunted with the thoughts of its necessity. (Section 4) Paine attempts to give the colonists the picture that they will need to take action sooner or later as the colonies will not be able to remain under the control of the British and be successful. Paine uses this concept to complete the picture that the colonies need to do something and now is the best time. At this time in 1776, the colonies still have control off large amount of resources that are able to fuel an army and even develop a navy. At the same time, the colonies have a significant amount of militias.

Paine points out that if the colonies continues to put aside their independence the British will become more involved in taking the colonies resources, in addition to insuring that the colonies are not able to produce significant militias to organize a revolution. Paine, then, explains the concept that small developing countries, like the colonies current state, have the most patriotism. He explains that if the colonies wait to rebel, they will become more plopped in business and commerce and lose the patriotism that is required to fuel a rebellion.

Finally, Paine acknowledges that in the current state of world affairs, the colonies are extremely likely to gain the support of the French as they are still looking for revenge after the French and Indian War. By analyzing the current state of the colonies and their current opportunities Paine is able to reason with colonists and gain support for a revolution. As Paine begins to wrap up common sense, he addresses briefly addresses the Quaker argument for peace, instead of war with the British.

Paine quickly embarrasses the Quaker argument by claiming that all the colonists want peace and that peace will be best obtained through war and asking his fellow colonists to disregard the foolish Quakers. Overall, Paine uses practical reasoning to condemn the British monarchy, resolve the prevalent counter arguments to American independence, and explain why the colonists need fight for their independence now oppose to later on. Thomas Pain’s Common Sense works as a notable pamphlet to persuade the minds of the colonists to gain their independence from Britain.

Thomas Paine “COMMON SENSE”

If all people acted morally, then overspent will not be necessary. But since we are all sinful humans, government’s role is essential to protect our life, property and provide security. Paine thinks that people will be much happier if they are responsible for the creation of the laws that rule them. He mentions a scenario in which a small group of people placed on an island away from the rest of the society. These people will start to develop ties between one another in order to avoid living alone. They would start interacting to build shelters and feed themselves.

Thus, out of necessity, people tend to create society. People will need no government as long as they were able to morally treat each other. However, in order to stay safe from the predictable imperfections that may occur, people do need some sort of government to regulate them. Paine moves on to argue against monarchy and hereditary succession. He argues that everyone was born equal and the distinction that occurs between the king and the people is very unnatural and he, in fact, refers to it as a sinful act that lacks any religious bases.

According to Paine, Man is supposed to have only God ruling over him, and it s very sinful act to have a king ruling over people and acting like a God to them. He said that even if people asked to have a king to rule over them, kings should not have the right to pass their power to their generation. Even if the person may deserve certain honors, it does not necessarily mean that his children deserve them and thus, they should not be passed on.

Moreover, hereditary succession causes many evils with it, such as bringing incompetent kings who were useless in many cases with some of them suffering from mental and physiological issues. It was also the major cause of huge corruption and civil wars. Paine comes to a conclusion that Monarchy and hereditary succession have produced no good in the world but bloodshed and corruption. Paine was trying to lead people to the necessity of declaring America’s independence from Great Britain.

People argued that since America has flourished under the British rule, it should therefore remain attached to Britain. Paine debated this false way of thinking saying that Just because a child has flourished on milk, it does not mean that they should never eat meat for the rest of his/her life. He uses his example to further convince people that if Britain helped America to flourish, it does not necessary means that America should be attached to Britain forever. He also argues that Britain has only watched over America for its own benefits.

On one hand, it is argued that Britain has protected the colonies, on the other hand, Paine pointed out that Britain’s protection for the colonies was solely for its financial and economical well. He also mentions that the need for protection comes from the fact that those colonies are Britain’s colonies and thus, they suffer from Britain’s enemies. Paine also states that “from Britain we can expect nothing but ruin” he believes that Britain can no more be trustworthy especially after it has constantly enforced unfair taxes on its colonies and continued to enforce new taxes even after people have repelled them with the stamp- act.

Instead of watching over the colonies, the British have been attacking them, and are therefore undeserving of American loyalty. Paine further argues that America has gained nothing by remaining attached to Britain and it should be better off for America to seek independence now and conduct with the rest of Europe. Otherwise, many battles and unresolved financial issues will start to reappear and affect the colonies and it will eventually become impossible for them to return to a state of peace and normality under the British rule.

Moreover, Paine discusses the fact that America is a huge land and therefore it should be too complex to be governed by Britain which, in fact, is a smaller land. He goes on to add that it is perverse for a small island to be ruling over a larger continent. Having a strong belief in its will, Paine is convinced that America is capable of having a Navy that couple potentially defeats that of Britain’s. He goes on further and presents a full breakdown of how much it could cost to get it up and running.

Moreover, he backs up his argument by stating that America has enough natural resources to start building its Navy. Another reason why this Navy is essential, he states, is because America’s coasts are unprotected. Furthermore, Paine claims that America could potentially breakdown if independence does not take place. He goes on to say that the current size of the colonies makes it easier for them to be united together, I. E. There’s a better chance for them to work together. If time were to pass, and the population of the colonies to grow, the same feeling of unity would not be present.

Lastly, Paine makes it clear that independence is crucial for America to function properly. He says that, by declaring independence, America will be able to ask for the help of other countries in its struggle for freedom. For all of these reasons, Paine says it is very urgent that the colonies declare independence. All of the powerful phrases and arguments that were written by Thomas Paine greatly pushed and supported Americans to declare their independence from Great Britain in 1776, the event that marks the birth of the United States.

Thomas Paine Common Sense

Common Sense Common sense Is greatly credited with encouraging the colonists to finally establish themselves Independently from Britain as Thomas Paine attacked the principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government. He believed that society Is constructive In that people join together to accomplish common goals and the government’s role Is to protect the citizens from their own vices, thus being a necessary evil. In the first passage of the article, Paine criticizes the monarchy and the monopoly n power they pretend is balanced, but in actuality is not.

He claims that the distinction between kings and a normal citizen is unusual and that Britain abuses this power to establish an inequality in society. He doesn’t believe that one’s birth gives them any natural right to rule or govern a society. By keeping this lineage of rulers going, they encourage corruption and civil war because it’s a pattern that the citizens cannot change since it’s forced upon them. This Is the first reason Paine believes the colonists should break away from the English.

Another reason they should become Independent is because plainly, they Just don’t have to rely on British lad any more. By taxing the colonists without true representation, Britain has never really protected America and Is undeserving of their loyalty, because her loyalty was based on “interest, not attachment”. He compares the flourishing of America under British rule to that of a child flourishing from milk when young, and that America would have flourished more if not restricted from the tedious taxation and laws.

Commerce was restricted from the rest of Europe while under Britain control, and by gaining independence they would secure “peace and friendship of all of Europe” since American’s will then have a free port, unregulated from the Navigation Acts and will no longer be viewed as a rebel. Paine argues that there is nothing left to gain from Britain and that the quicker they seek Independence, the faster they’ll be able to recover from the problems they now face. He encourages they can establish a navy Just as big as Britain and that heir population will grow out West to expand their country under a truly balanced government.

Because independence will leave them in debt, they should do it now while their population is smaller before it expands so that they can receive help from other nations. In order to be balanced, all the colonies should have equal weight so that it is a representative democracy. References: Fonder, E. (2004). Voices of freedom: A documentary history. New York: W. W. Norton. Fonder, E. (2012). Give me liberty! : An American history. New York: W. W. Norton. Thomas Paine (n. . ). Retrieved from https://www. Sparseness. Mom/lit/commonsense/ summary. HTML Thomas Paine Common Sense By ruffian Common sense is greatly credited with encouraging the colonists to finally establish themselves independently from Britain as Thomas Paine attacked the principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government. He believed that society is constructive in that people Join together to accomplish common goals and the government’s role is to protect the citizens from their own vices, thus being a this power to establish an inequality in society.

The Difference Between Common Sense and Science

According to Albert Simooms et al(2000), teaching can be defined as an activity performed by a more experienced and knowledgeable person and aimed at helping the less experienced person to learn. He further explained that teaching also involved assisting the learner to either gain or change some knowledge, skills or attitudes. Among the many professions in the world , the teaching profession is considered one of the noblest and down-to-earth professions. But right now, great teachers are leaving the profession at a very high pace not only in Ghana but the oral at large due to certain reasons expatiated upon below.

According to the General Secretary of the Ghana National Association of Teachers( GNAT), Mrs.. Irene Duncan-Daunts, an estimated 33,185 teachers have abandoned their posts in recent years to seek greener pastures elsewhere. In my opinion, low salaries, delayed promotion, poor infrastructure, lack of motivation from some of the managers of the profession and the wrong perception about the teaching profession have accounted for the high attrition of teachers. Low salaries as used In this regard has been Identified as the major reason why teachers leave for greener pastures In other fields especially In Ghana.

In relation to the research dubbed: ” Teacher Attrition In Ghana”, which was conducted in pre;tertiary schools by Mr.. Swabbed Anorak Toto, a research fellow at Ghana Trade union Congress, the gross monthly salaries of respondents (teachers ) sampled ranged between GHz 401 and GHz 500. It also came out from his research that 23. 3 per cent of the respondents earn between GHz 201 and GHz 300 as gross monthly salary, 18. Per cent earn between GHz 301 and GHz 400 while 11. 7 per cent of the respondents earn between GHz 501 and Chough which according to me, is nothing to write home about.

Based on the aforementioned survey, 90 percent of the respondents indicated their intention to leave the teaching profession with the sole intent of seeking for Jobs with huge salaries. Coupled with the issue of high attrition of teachers from the profession is attributed to lack or poor Infrastructure and lack of social nameless. This Issue literally comes Into play In the rural sectors where cheers oftentimes find It difficult to get access to good Infrastructure, clean drinking water, electricity just to mention a few among others.

The last but not least in relation to the issue of high teacher attrition can also be attributed to the wrong perception of the general public about the teaching profession in this present age. In ancient Greece, teachers were regarded as semi-gods and even worshipped by the pupils as a result of the knowledge, wisdom and intrinsic qualities of teaching they did possess. Nowadays, the general perception of the people towards teachers specially in Ghana is excruciatingly humiliating and disgraceful as the profession has been reduced to the most unattractive Job.

Precisely, teaching Job has become a purchasable profession. In this age of stiff competitive world especially In the field of education where the wealth of every nation Is measured In terms of the standard of education of Its people, It Is disheartening and shameful to learn that the teachers, who are regarded as builders of the nations’ pillars are on strikes, darns, class Doctor et cetera wanly emphatically Orleans ten teaching protesters Into Elsewhere.

Psychology and common sense

Psychology is a scientific and research based study of human mind-set and behaviors. The field of study focuses on emotions, characteristics and behaviors of individuals in their daily lives and their behaviors when interacting with other people. Wilhelm Wound is the father of psychology, whom set up his first laboratory In Leipzig, Germany in 1879. His main contribution to the field of psychology was his Idea of structuralism; the use of Introspection to study Individual’s experiences comprising of sensations, images and feelings. Throughout his course of research, he

Insisted on using systematic observation and measurement, which serve as a strong foundation for psychology studies In the future. Whereas, common sense basically refers to the common knowledge shared by the majority human population. Such knowledge usually arise from dally observation and Interaction one another, past experiences, beliefs that are being passed down for generations and scenarios commonly portrayed in television shows. Much of psychology Is not based on common sense, but on research, testing, and applications of theory.

As such, psychologists are heavily trained in research methods and statistics. Psychology is a real science as It uses scientific methods such as the experimental research and analysis to support a hypothesis and that psychology is not just things we see everyday. Psychology has a wide variety of aspects; from the social side of understanding why people behave in a specific way, to the neuroscience side of understanding what goes wrong in the brain of people with mental health disorders. As psychologists attempt to explain the mind and brain in the context of real life, it is finitely not common sense.

One common sense belief states that if someone recalls something vividly and confidently, that memory is true and accurate. In another words, an individual will not false memories. Even if there is, the individual will have the ability to differentiate real from false memories. However, psychological research have proven this common sense belief to be wrong. False memories, also known as pseudonymous, can usually be formed when individual try to fill up the gaps in their memory by logic guesses combining with their actual memory Stakeouts, Norman & Chatter, 1998, p. 89-318). This action is otherwise called constructive processing. A study by Braun, Ellis and Loft’s (2002) shows that sixteen percent of the people who were shown with a fake advertisement of Bugs Bunny in Disney resort actually insisted that they met Bugs In Disney. However, It was not possible since Bugs is a character from Warner Brothers and not Disney (p. 1-23). This study reflected that some subjects experience constructive processing after seeing the fake advertisement. Hence, the false memory formed seems rather logical to them.

In another research carried out by Loft’s (Bibb together with her research associate, Jacqueline Pluckier, they told a group of subjects, ranging from 18 to 53 years old, a series of their childhood Incidents recounted by their family members or close relatives. Out of all the incidents told, they included one whereby the subjects had been lost in a shopping mall when they were still children. In the next two interview sessions, the subjects were asked to recall the incident of being lost in the all.

Surprising, about a quarter of them said they could remember it and even supplies extra details auto want napped even tong ten Incident was actually made up. This shows a way of inducing a completely false memory into someone simply by providing external evidence that prompt the happening of such incident (p. 71). Similar situation of implanting false memories into someone would be under therapy or hypnosis. The ‘misinformation effect’ is also theory accounted for the formation of pseudonymous.

This refers to the distortion of memory as a result of he presence of misleading and suggestive information as well as source confusion (Porter et. Al. , 2010, p. 55-61). The above mentioned studies and psychological theories such as constructive processing, hypnosis, misinformation effect, memory construction and schemas, have proven the common sense belief to be wrong. It is possible for an individual to take pseudonymous as their true and accurate memories. In conclusion, common sense beliefs are knowledge that everybody are exposed to whereas psychology comprises of careful and scientific researches and analysis.

Though common sense beliefs may be widely used and agreed to, that do not necessary mean that they are correct. In fact, they are generally false explanations of thought process and behavior. Psychologists are hence able to come up with psychological explanation to prove the direct opposite of the common sense. Nonetheless, psychological explanation can also be used to prove certain common sense beliefs which are true. As such, people can view psychology as a tool employed to prove the credibility of common sense. Therefore, psychology is not Just common sense.

Primary Source Analysis Common Sense

Primary Source Analysis Thomas Paine Common Sense Context: In result of The Seven Years’ War Britain controlled American trade and territory. In order to pay for the expenses of the war several taxation acts and military presence were implemented such as the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, Quartering Act and the presence of British troops at the colonies. Consequently, Americans who thought these actions violated their political and constitutional liberties opposed these policies with petitions, boycotts, and resistance strategies known as the Imperial Crisis.

In January 1776 Thomas Pain’s Common Sense was composed to invoice Americans of the need for independence from British rule and establishment of democracy. This pamphlet was written in common language to appeal to lower class citizens, rather than written in Latin, which was aimed towards the small elite. Also, Paine made several biblical references to appeal to his the people and King George Ill, “the Pharaoh of England” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense). Ironically, Thomas Paine was an English immigrant; however he offered a good perspective on the importance of American independence.

Thomas Paine, John Adams and Dry. Benjamin Rush consisted of a group who fought for American independence by constructing the pamphlet. Attacking the English government, Paine states, “Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state Is but a necessary evil In Its worst state an In tolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect In a country without government, our calamities is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer! ” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense).

Content: The mall point in Thomas Pain’s Common Sense was independence from British rule and the establishment of democracy. To build his case Paine points out many alts In the English government consisting of Its complexity, the absurd configuration of monarchy and the principles of hereditary rule. Paine expresses that the English government is based off of “two ancient tyrannies… Monarchical tyranny in the person of the king [and] aristocratically tyranny in the persons of the peers… ” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense) imposing that England’s government is ineffective.

He argues that a democratic system based on continual elections and rights of the people protected by a written constitution would be more beneficial to society. To strengthen the concept of democracy, Paine speaks of a hypothetical society brought up in an isolated part of the world, away from other inhabitants. This supposed society represented the first people. Thomas Paine claims that some of its people will have many accomplishments other will not; thus through hunger, disease, misfortune and death It Is Inevitable that the people will set up some form of government Tanat “… All straddles a common Interest Walt every part AT ten community, they will mutually and naturally support each other, and on this (not on the unmeaning name of king) depends the strength of government, and the happiness of the governed” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense). This statement reassures his beliefs towards democracy while showing how pointless English rule is to society. Thomas Paine is attempting to promote American independence with this document by explaining the benefits of democracy, in doing so he is demeaning the English government.

Paine emphasizes the prejudices the English may have had by stating, “And as a man, who is attached to a prostitute, is unfitted to choose or Judge of a wife, so any prepossession in favor of a rotten constitution of government will disable us from discerning a good one” (Thomas Paine, Common Sense). Consequences/Causation/Conclusions: Although these ideas were not original, Paine directed Common Sense towards common people writing simply are directly thus expanding the public sphere, where political discussion took place.

This document contributed to the separation of the colonies and Great Britain. Shortly after, the United States was declared an independent nation and on July 4, 1776, Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson and revised by the Congress was approved. This document reveals that American society is reluctantly involved in Britain’s wars and altercations resulting in bad relationships with other countries that would otherwise look for ironsides. As well as Britain’s right to tax the colonies and the belief that Britain was a corrupt society where freedom was dwindling.

“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine

Paine goes further in supporting his argument by explaining both sides of the argument. In other words, he not only tries to appeal to those Americans that want independence, but also with those that want to reconcile with Great Britain. “l have heard it asserted by some, that as America has flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument. We may as ell assert that because a child has thrived upon milk, that it is never to have meat…. “(Beam 694).

Paine states that there are some Americans’ that feel that America has flourished as a country, and in order to continue to flourish we (referring to the Americans) must not revolt but we have to continue to have Britain’s control over us. However since we have flourished because of their control, it doesn’t mean that we can’t flourish on our own. One can see that Paine is attempting to address any counterarguments that may be posed against the point he is trying to establish. By addressing these counterarguments he can try to show those who want to reconcile with Great Britain that his point of view is right.

Besides from addressing any counterarguments that would have diminished his point, Paine also tried to establish his point by creating a type of mood that would Incite anger and bitterness In his readers. When reading some of the grievances that Brutal did to American citizens during their tyranny, he explained these grievances In a way that would anger the Americans. For example; he claimed that many Americans felt happy that a great power such as Brutal was protecting them from foreign powers that would want to hurt America, but when In fact these foreign powers were really after Britain.

Since Britain had a hold on America, any power that wanted to hurt Britain would try to hurt America. This argument would anger many Americans’ who felt that they shouldn’t be held accountable for Britain’s mistakes. They don’t want to fight any battles that Britain caused. In fact, Paine stated that if teen were Tree, teen would try to make peace wit n tense countries Tanat antenna d Let Britain waive her pretensions to the continent, or the continent throw off the dependence, and we should be at peace with France and Spain, were they at war with Britain. (695). There are a lot more key instances where Paine tries to create a mood of hatred toward the British. He states that the early descendants of America left Europe to escape and find asylum from the religious persecution, and the tyranny of their mother country. Now when they came to America that same tyranny pursues them. “Hither have they fled, not from the tender embraces of the mother, but from the realty of the monster; and it is so far true of England, that the same tyranny which drove the first emigrants from home, pursues their descendants still. (695). Paine is trying to make the readers try to remember why their ancestors came to America. By making them remember, he is trying to show them that the same group of people they ran from is still trying to oppress them. Aside from the mood that Paine tried to create, the basic theme or point in his essay was to make the Americans realize that their freedom was being taken away from them, and it was time for them to make a stand. Paine did so by denouncing British tyranny and insisted that the people should come together and declare their independence.

By trying to establish this theme, he does so by stating arguments that support his idea and counterarguments that may diminish the value of his point. Pain’s essay is typical of work from this point in history. During the middle to late sass’s, the British presence was being noticed and literary works that asked people to realize that independence was necessary were popular. Not only did Pain’s work coincide with literary works from this time period but also his style of argumentative say writing was typical of his work. The Crisis” is another argumentative essay written by Thomas Paine that also tries to argue why Americans should declare their independence. One of the major significances of Pain’s works is that it encouraged and urged Americans to look at what Britain was doing to them. Another interesting fact is that Pain’s writings were very influential and inspirational toward the early writers’ of the Declaration of Independence. Furthermore, I believe that “Common Sense” was a remarkable essay that asked the Americans to look at and evaluate the situation that they were in.

Paine wanted the readers’ to stop living in the past, and to look toward the future. This essay was so threatening to the British, instead of crediting himself for writing the essay he wrote by Anonymous. If the British had found out it was in fact Paine who wrote the essay, he would have been killed for treason. Even today Pain’s “Common Sense is looked at as the key works that helped ignite the American Revolution. The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Volume I Fifth Edition) des. Beam, Franklin, et al. Up 693-699.